K'inich Janaab' Pacal was born on March 23, 603 CE. Commonly referred to as King Pacal, he was crowned king of Palenque on his 12th birthday. He had a 50 year reign and brought riches and glory to Palenque. However, Pacal's greatest achievement was the Temple of the Inscriptions, which was designed to be his final resting place. The tomb chamber lies below ground level and was completed, with the massive sarcophagus in place, before the towering temple structure was built over it. Pacal lived long enough to see the temple built and the expansion and power of Palenque at its height.
Tikal was a very large and influential city during the classic period of the Mayas. It was located in the northern rainforests of Guatemala. Tikal was ruled by many dynasties and fought constantly for power. It became a very popular urban center and had one of the largest populations of all the Mayan city-states. It was eventually defeated by neighboring cities. Like other Mayan centers, it was abandoned around 900 A.D.
Tulum came to power much later than most Mayan city-states, in fact some cities were already in decline. It was a major trading hub, and served as a retreat for the Mayan elite. It was the only Mayan city which had walls, which served as a class barrier. Tulum did not have imposing pyramids, perhaps due to lack of resources and man power. However, Tulum was one of the few Mayan city-states that was still inhabited by the time the Spanish arrived.